String Handling Functions
In this article, let’s see about the character string handling functions and how to use string functions in PL/I Programming.
Used to extract the required portion of the Character String, Bit or Pic Attributes, by specifying the starting position and the length of the required string.
- Name of the data item = SUBSTR (Identifier, m,n)
- Arg. Identifier denotes on which the SUBSTR function is to be applied.
- Arg. m used to mention the starting position of the SUBSTR operation on the Id.
- Arg. n used to mention the Length of the resulting character.
EDITED_TODAY=DAY|| ‘-’ || MONTH || ‘-’|| YEAR;
DCL MESSAGE CHAR(40);
BIT function in PL/I
Converts a coded arithmetic data item or character string to a bit string. Arg. may be a single value, an Exp. of an array name and the length of resulting bit-string. The second arg. is optional.
DCL Data item1, …, Data item n BIT(identifier)
DCL X FIXED BIN(31);
NO_BITS = BIT(X); /* The result will be Bit string 32 */
NO_BITS=BIT(X,15); /* The result will be Bit string 15 */
Converts the specified value into Character String. Like BIT, we can use two arguments also. First Arg. is the identifier to be converted and second argument is a decimal constant, indicating the length of the result.
Important note is CHAR can’t be used on POINTER Variables.
DCL Data item1, …, Data item n CHAR(identifier);
DCL A FIXED DEC (5) INIT(175);
DCL B FIXED DEC (10) INIT (16500);
DCL C CHAR(5);
C=CHAR(A); /* The result will be ‘bb175’ */
C=CHAR(B); /* The result will be ‘16500’ */
Used to find the length of the given bit or a character string and returns a result as FIXED BINARY form.
Name of the data item = LENGTH(identifier);
DCL A CHAR(40);
DCL B FIXED BIN (20);
A= ‘ANAND KANDHASWAMY BALASUBRAMANIAN’;
C=LENGTH(A); /* The result will be 33 */
INDEX in PL/I Programming
Used to search a string for a specified bit or character configuration. The argument may be bit string, character string, binary coded arithmetic, decimal picture or array names. The results returned has the attributes BINARY FIXED(15).
Name of the data item = INDEX(the string to be searched, a bit/char is searched)
X = INDEX(SEN,’XX’);
- If neither arg is bit string or only one arg is bit string, both arg are converted in character string.
- If both arguments are bit strings, no conversion is performed.
- Binary coded arithmetic strings are converted to bit-string.
- Decimal picture arguments are converted to char-string, before the above conversion made.
This function takes a given string value and forms a new string consisting of the string value concatenated with itself a specified number of times.
REPEAT (decimal integer, char / bit string)
NAME=REPEAT ( ‘ANAND’, 2); /* ANANDANAND */
TEST_DATA = ‘101’B;
X = REPEAT(TEST_DATE,3); /* ‘101101101’B */
Used to convert a character or a set of character to a character or a set of character in a specified character string.
- Name of the data item = TRANSLATE ( Arg1, Arg2, Arg3);
- Arg1 is the Source Character string,
- Arg2 is the Replacement string,
- Arg3 is the Current or Position string.
DCL A CHAR(10),
C = ‘0’;
D = ‘X’;
A = ‘XX123XX’;
B = TRANSLATE(A,C,D); /* The result will be 0012300 */
( Replace all X by 0)
VERIFY function in PL/1
Used to examine Two character strings with each other. It verifies each Character / Bit in the 1st String with the character / Bit of the Second string, returning a fixed binary value of 0 anything found. Otherwise the value returned is the first character in the first string that is not represented in the second string.